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At the 2011 UN Climate Change Conference, the Durban Platform (and the ad hoc working group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action) were created to negotiate a legal instrument to mitigate climate change from 2020. The resulting agreement is expected to be adopted in 2015. [62] Your Bibliography: Tambo, E., Duo-quan, W. and Zhou, X., 2016. Combating air pollution and extreme climate change in China: implementation of the Paris Agreement on climate change. Environment International, 95, 152-156. On August 4, 2017, the Trump administration officially announced to the United Nations that the United States intends to withdraw from the Paris Agreement as soon as it is legally entitled to it. [79] The formal declaration of resignation could not be submitted until after the agreement for the United States came into force on November 4, 2019 for a three-year date. [80] [81] On November 4, 2019, the U.S.

government filed the withdrawal notice with the Secretary-General of the United Nations, custodian of the agreement, and formally withdrew from the Paris Agreement a year later, when the withdrawal came into effect. [82] After the November 2020 elections, President-elect Joe Biden promised to reinstate the United States in the Paris Agreement for his first day in office and renew the U.S. commitment to climate change mitigation. [83] The Paris Agreement was launched at the signing on April 22, 2016 (Earth Day) at a ceremony in New York. [59] After the agreement was ratified by several EU member states in October 2016, there were enough countries that had ratified the agreement to produce enough greenhouse gases in the world for the agreement to enter into force. [60] The agreement came into force on November 4, 2016. [2] 10 Fiona Harvey, Paris Climate Change Agreement: The World`s Greatest Diplomatic Success, Guardian (December 14, 2015), on The goal of the agreement is to reduce global warming outlined in Article 2, “improving the implementation” of the UNFCCC[11] When the agreement reached enough signatures on October 5, 2016 to cross the threshold, U.S. President Barack Obama said, “Even if we achieve every goal… we will only get to part of where we need to go. He also said that “this agreement will help delay or avoid some of the worst consequences of climate change.” It will help other nations reduce their emissions over time and set bolder goals as technology progresses, all under a strong transparency system that will allow each nation to assess the progress of all other nations. [27] [28] The EU and its member states are individually responsible for ratifying the Paris Agreement. There was a strong preference for the EU and its 28 Member States to simultaneously table their ratification instruments to ensure that neither the EU nor its Member States commit to fulfil commitments that are strictly the other` and there was concern that differences of opinion on each Member State`s share of the EU reduction target and the British vote to leave the EU would delay the Paris Pact. [72] However, on 4 October 2016, the European Parliament approved the ratification of the Paris Agreement[60] and the EU tabled its ratification instruments on 5 October 2016 with several EU Member States.

[72] Section 28 of the agreement allows the parties to terminate the contract following a notification of an appeal to the custodian.